Johann Andreas Herbst, Musica Moderna Prattica (Frankfurt am Main, 1632), 3. 57. Return to text. Return to text. His vox humana is a unique achievement in its imitation of singing voices; it gave birth to all sorts of legends about Gabler having made an agreement with the Devil, perhaps partly based on the numbers (66 stops, 6666 pipes). There are extensive footnotes throughout — to view them, simply click/tap the number of the note (in red), and you will be redirected to the bottom of the page; at the end of each note, then click/tap "Return to text," and you will be redirected to where you left off. 2 (1966), 163–184. But in some cases, the names are not consistent.

epitomizes this principle. "49, The trembling style of singing is also documented in England. Another possible source of confusion is the less frequent Italian reed stop called voci humane, probably made for the first time by Giovanni Cipri in Bologna, 1551.

49.

28. who made a few Vox Humana choruses with separate 16, 8, 4 ranks, cylindrical resonators, usually 1/4 or 1/8 length, and usually the details of its construction, but rather on its acoustical Surprisingly, this early fiffaro is not a beating set of detuned pipes, but a tremolante nel canale. to its effect. No theatre organ could be considered complete without at least

Return to text. 20. According to Strony, the finest ones were made by Wurlitzer, Diapason Return to text. Atlanta, Georgia, USA; Aeolian-Skinner 1962. While organ builders have tried for half a millenium to The photograph below right shows in the foreground the Vox Humana 8' Claudio Monteverdi, Sanctissimae Virgini Missa Senis Vocibus, Bassus Generalis (Venice, 1610), 42, 49, 50. Return to text. listener, and enclosure in a swell box all contribute greatly The Vox Humana is one of the oldest organ stops, dating back at

Robert Bates, “On the Jeux: Unraveling the Mysteries of Sixteenth-Century French Organ Terminology,” Keyboard Perspectives 10 (2017), 59-89. “L’Hydraulis dalla voce ‘gargante’ di Giambattista Della Porta e altri accessori ‘lirici’ per l’organo c. 1560-1860,” Informazione Organistica 18 (2007), 211–237. Václav Philomates, Musicorum Libri Quattuor (Vienna, 1512). where it was always used with the 8' Bourdon ["Something similar is observed in the tremulant of the organ, which does not change the tone of each pipe, and which can only have been invented to imitate the singing voice by that circumstance, something that it does only in a quite imperfect way."] Menschenstimme 8', Swell; Trinity Church, New York City, Schneider 2002 opus XXIII. 39. might have as many as four independent Vox Humana ranks. Johann Friderich Walther, Die In der Königl. It appears again in 1582, in Perugia, Orvieto (1592), Pisa (1599), Assisi (1611), Perugia (1635), and Rome (1660).38 This early form of the reed vox humana is used with the tremulant as Morsolino describes in 1582, and should not be confused with the beating fiffaro o registro delle voci umane.39. But already in 1526, a combination called voix de brodes and a "trembling voice" (voix tranblant) were mentioned (Saint-Loup, Cezy). Giovanni Battista Doni, "Trattato della musica scenica," De’ Trattati di Musica di Gio. This is the earliest known example of ("Oratione funebre nella morte della Signora Alessandra Lardi. But this undulation should only be allowed "with particular moderation," according to Praetorius, unlike what is heard in certain schools.33 Bernhard and Mylius also warn against excessive continuous trembling, whereas in Italy, Francesco Rognoni34 and Giovanni Battista Doni35 criticise those who abuse of the ornamental tremolo. Other names reveal the interest in imitating particular types of voices (criard, nazard, canard, papegai). All of the names translate to some variation on the phrase ––––––––––––––––––––––––, It is often a surprise, even for historically informed performers, to discover that undulating organ stops were created as early as the beginning of sixteenth century. "59, The tremulant is again compared to vocal undulations by Johann Mattheson (1713, 1739), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1768), and in particular by Denis Dodart (1706) in his essay on the nature of the vocal undulation which, according to him, is the distinctive element of a pleasing singer's voice.60 This intrinsic quality of the singing voice is equally mentioned by Johann Kirnberger61 (another disciple of J. S. Bach, as J. F. Agricola) and by Wolfgang A. Mozart.62, How accurate these imitations were, we can only guess by stories like this one: in 1750, Joseph Gabler finished his masterpiece, the famous organ at the Basilika St. Martin, in Weingarten.

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