A cancer specific rehabilitation and quality of life instrument, The cancer inventory of problem situations: an instrument for assessing cancer patients' rehabilitation needs, The CES‐D scale: a self‐report depression scale for research in the general population, Tai Chi Chuan, health‐related quality of life and self‐esteem: a randomized trial with breast cancer survivors, Effect of upper extremity exercise on secondary lymphedema in breast cancer patients: a pilot study, Running versus weight lifting in the treatment of depression, Comparing aerobic with nonaerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of clinical depression: a randomized trial, Exercise and depressive symptoms: a comparison of aerobic and resistance exercise effects on emotional and physical function in older persons with high and low depressive symptomatology, Predicting mood disorders in breast cancer patients, Physical exercise in cancer patients during and after medical treatment: a systematic review of randomized and controlled clinical trials, Quality of life of African‐American and white long term breast carcinoma survivors, Quality of life in long‐term, disease‐free survivors of breast cancer: a follow‐up study, Quality of life of 5‐10 year breast cancer survivors diagnosed between age 40 and 49, Quality of life of long‐term survivors of breast cancer and lymphoma treated with standard‐dose chemotherapy or local therapy. In the present study, changes in physical global score and psychosocial global score significantly correlated with changes in bench press but not in leg press, whereas both bench press and leg press in breast cancer survivors were significantly increased after 6 months of weight training;24 the percentage changes in bench press 1‐RM tests over the first 6 months were 63% in immediate vs. 12% in delayed treatment groups (P<.001), and the leg press 1‐RM increases were 38% for immediate and 9% for delayed treatment groups over the first 6 months (P<.001). An update of controlled physical activity trials in cancer survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resistance training interventions across the cancer control continuum: a systematic review of the implementation of resistance training principles. Changes in the Body Image and Relationship Scale following a one-year strength training trial for breast cancer survivors with or at risk for lymphedema. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. However, improvements in QOL were significantly associated with increases in lean muscle mass and body strength in this study, which may reduce the possibility of the “placebo” influences. The results show that weight training had beneficial effects on physical and psychosocial QOL scores; these improvements were associated with increases in lean muscle mass and upper body strength. Strengths of the present study include that the women were screened before study entry to be less than moderately physically active, the randomized controlled design with an intention to treat analysis, and measurement of QOL and depressive symptoms with standardized questionnaires used in breast cancer survivor populations. Physical global score improved by 2.1% in the treatment group compared with a worsening by 1.2% in the control group, with a standardized difference of 0.62 (P = .006). Depressive symptom measured by CES‐D was not associated with weight training in breast cancer survivors, whereas a previous study showed that aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on changes in scores of depression and anxiety.16 In studies of patients who are depressed (noncancer survivors), some studies have reported that weight training, as well as aerobic exercise, had beneficial effects in reducing depressive symptoms,31, 32 whereas another study showed only aerobic exercise, and not weight training, improved depressive symptoms.33 Because only 12.4% (n = 10) of the WTBS study participants had depression (score ≥ 16) at baseline, although the prevalence of depression in breast cancer survivors was about the same as previous report,34 our ability to assess the effect of weight training on depressive symptoms was limited. QOL in long‐term breast cancer survivors is likely modified by various physiologic and psychosocial factors such as type of breast cancer, treatment, management of long‐term breast‐related symptoms, life stress, general health perception, and socioeconomic status.36-39 Additional interventions of greater sample size, longer duration, and longer follow‐up are therefore needed to ascertain the long‐term effects of weight training in breast cancer survivors. Physical activity for women with breast cancer after adjuvant therapy. A recent randomized study showed that self‐reported physical functioning, general health, and vitality in breast cancer patients with lymphedema increased after participating in an 8‐week upper extremity exercise program, which further supports this hypothesis.30. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Exercise Guidelines for Cancer Survivors. Table 2 presents the CARES‐SF scores (mean ± SD), by treatment allocation, at baseline and 6 months, as well as the changes over 6 months. Women's Perceived Benefits of Exercise During and After Breast Cancer Treatment. Resistance Exercise Interventions across the Cancer Control Continuum. Participants were lost to follow‐up due to breast cancer recurrences (n = 4) and personal reasons (n = 3), such as lack of time and lack of continued interest in the study. Increases in upper body strength were correlated with improvements in physical global score (r = 0.32; P <.01) and psychosocial global score (r = 0.30; P <.01). Resistance Training for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women in the US, with more than 200,000 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer each year.1 Early‐stage breast cancer has an excellent prognosis and the most recent estimate of the 5‐year relative survival rate of all breast cancers is 88%.1 However, breast cancer survivors suffer from several diseases and treatment late‐effects, including depression,2 sexual dysfunction,3, 4 chronic fatigue,5 weight gain,6 and sleep disturbance;7 these late‐effects all impact health‐related quality of life (QOL). The mechanism by which weight training may improve QOL in breast cancer survivors may be a sense of return to feeling in control of their bodies that may translate into feeling greater efficacy in other areas of life. Meta-analysis of the effects of exercise intervention on quality of life in breast cancer survivors. The effect of exercise on fatigue and physical functioning in breast cancer patients during and after treatment and at 6 months follow-up: A meta-analysis. The Effects of Concurrent Training on the Body Composition, Quality of Life, and Sleep Quality of Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer. Sample size and term of interventions of previous randomized trials of exercise after breast cancer treatment were 12 to 60 women and 7 to 15 weeks,35 compared with a sample size of 86 women and a 6‐month intervention in the present study. Physical Activity, Weight Control, and Cancer Prognosis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Water versus land-based multimodal exercise program effects on body composition in breast cancer survivors: a controlled clinical trial. A convenience sample of 86 women was recruited from among breast cancer survivors living in the Greater Minneapolis / St. Paul metropolitan area between October 2001 and June 2002. Safety and efficacy of progressive resistance training in breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Exercise parameters in the management of breast cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Chronic Effects of Resistance Training in Breast Cancer Survivors. Upload your creations for people to see, favourite and share. Razavi International Journal of Medicine. Role of physical activity in tumor patients and possible underlying mechanisms. Cancer 2006. Impact of physical exercise in cancer survivors during and after antineoplastic treatments. These findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that improvements in QOL scores were mediated through improvements in physical strength and muscle mass. Items of the CARES‐SF were combined into a global summary score.

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